Spinors and Descartes’ Theorem

Descartes’ circle theorem relates the curvatures of four mutually externally tangent circles, three “petal” circles around the exterior of a central circle, forming a “3-flower” configuration. We generalise this theorem to the case of an “n-flower”, consisting of n tangent circles around the exterior of a central circle, and give an explicit equation satisfied by their curvatures. The proof uses a spinorial description of horospheres in hyperbolic geometry.

Spinors and horospheres

We give an explicit bijective correspondence between between nonzero pairs of complex numbers, which we regard as spinors or spin vectors, and horospheres in 3-dimensional hyperbolic space decorated with certain spinorial directions. This correspondence builds upon work of Penrose–Rindler and Penner. We show that the natural bilinear form on spin vectors describes a certain complex-valued distance between spin-decorated horospheres, generalising Penner’s lambda lengths to 3 dimensions.

From this, we derive several applications. We show that the complex lambda lengths in a hyperbolic ideal tetrahedron satisfy a Ptolemy equation.
We also obtain correspondences between certain spaces of hyperbolic ideal polygons and certain Grassmannian spaces, under which lambda lengths correspond to Pl├╝cker coordinates, illuminating the connection between Grassmannians, hyperbolic polygons, and type A cluster algebras.